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Analysis Of The Main Applications Of Laser Welding Technology In The Automotive Field

威廉希尔官方下载Jan 16, 2020

Because of its advantages of high energy density, deep penetration, high precision, and strong adaptability, laser welding has been widely valued in the fields of aerospace, machinery, electronics, automotive, shipbuilding, and nuclear energy engineering. Especially in automobile production, laser welding has been widely used in both body assembly and automobile parts production.


Because of its advantages such as high energy density, deep penetration, high precision, and strong adaptability, laser welding has been widely valued in the fields of aerospace, machinery, electronics, automotive, shipbuilding, and nuclear energy engineering. Especially in automobile production, laser welding has been widely used in both body assembly and automobile parts production. According to relevant statistics, 50% to 70% of auto parts in developed European and American industrial countries are completed by laser processing. Among them, laser welding and cutting are mainly used. Laser welding has become a standard process in automobile production.


Laser welding application technology

1.Laser welding technology for automobile body

The car body is a typical thin plate and shell structure. It is made of low-alloy high-strength thin steel plate by stamping, cutting and shaping into a cover, and is assembled by welding. The number of welding points in the body assembly can reach several thousand. The traditional welding uses the resistance spot welding process. The resistance spot welding process uses two electrodes to compress the workpiece from two directions, pressurize and energize the two lap pieces to form a solder joint between the contact surfaces, and weld the workpieces together. In order to meet the bonding and shape requirements, a certain interval must be maintained between the solder joints. During spot welding, the welding tongs are welded under the edge of the workpiece, and the flange width needs to be 16mm; while laser welding is single-sided welding, the flange width is only 5mm. Changing spot welding to laser welding alone can save 40kg of steel per car.


The narrow and deep welds formed by laser welding easily penetrate the workpiece. There is no mechanical contact between the laser head and the parts to be welded, and there is no processing mechanical stress. The tensile strength and fatigue strength of the laser welding seam are equivalent to that of the base material and meet the requirements of the bearing capacity. This can reduce the thickness of the component material and reduce the body weight. At the same time, because the laser welding is controlled by computer, it has strong flexibility and maneuverability, and can weld door, baffle, gear, instrument panel with special shapes. Coupled with fiber optic transmission systems and robots, you can automate automotive assembly lines.


2.Laser tailoring technology

Laser tailor welding technology is one of the most successful and obvious benefits of laser welding in the automotive industry. When the automobile industry first applied tailor-welded plates, it was mainly to solve the problem of insufficient width of the steel plate rolled by the rolling mill, and to meet the requirements of the automotive industry for wide plates through tailor-welded technology. With the development of the automobile industry, tailor-welded plates are developed in the direction of differential thick plates, and steel plates of different thicknesses can be tailor-welded. At this time, the purpose of tailor-welded automotive steel plates has been truly achieved. The invention of the laser tailor-welded plate technology was first applied in the production of the Audi 100 in 1985. Laser tailor welding technology is to select steel plates with different steel grades, types, grades and thicknesses according to the performance requirements of different parts of the car body during laser body manufacturing. Through laser cutting and tailor welding, certain parts of the car body such as side walls, floor plates, Door inner doors, pillars, etc. (see Figure 1) are welded together and then stamped to reduce the weight of the vehicle body while ensuring the strength of the vehicle body. This technique has a number of advantages:


1) Reduce the number of parts and equipment and procedures for a large number of stamping processes. Tailor welding can be integrally formed. According to the different requirements for strength of different parts, sheets of different thicknesses are welded together and then stamped once again. At the same time, the precision of the car body can be improved, and a large number of stamping processing equipment, processes and molds can be reduced.

2) Reduce component weight. Due to the use of different steel plates for splicing, coated steel plates can be used to increase the service life of parts that are easily corroded, thinner steel plates can be used for parts that do not bear loads or light loads, and high strength steel plates can be used for parts that bear loads No longer need to weld stiffeners, which greatly simplifies the body structure, thereby reducing steel consumption and production costs, reducing body weight, and ultimately reducing automobile energy consumption.

3) Improve the structural quality and reliability of components. Because continuous welding is used instead of discontinuous spot welding and riveting, the rigidity, fastening and safety of the vehicle body are greatly improved.

4) Provides the possibility to produce wide-body vehicles. Due to rolling mill restrictions, it is not possible to produce steel plates that are too wide, and automotive requirements for wide plates are becoming increasingly urgent. 威廉希尔官方下载ing laser tailor welding is an effective and economical process. Laser tailor welding makes the car look more beautiful and comfortable.


威廉希尔官方下载Optimize the design based on the analysis of the body structure, and select a few typical steel plates for tailor welding, which can improve the material utilization rate, eliminate the secondary processing process, and greatly reduce the number of molds. After the use of tailor-welded panels in the side production line of Toyota Motor Corporation of Japan, the number of parts was reduced by 66%, the number of molds was reduced from 20 to 4, and the utilization rate of materials was increased from 40% to 65%. 威廉希尔官方下载ing laser tailor welding, a medium-sized car can lose 9kg without affecting its strength.


威廉希尔官方下载At present, large foreign steel companies are vigorously developing laser tailored welding production lines. ArcelorMittal has 35 laser tailored welding production lines, and its products account for more than 50% of the European market; Italy's Solblank has 14 laser tailored welding production lines in production, and it is also planning to establish 4 in the United Kingdom and the United States Laser tailored welding lines; ThyssenKrupp has established laser tailored joint ventures in Indonesia and the United States (Detroit); British Steel has established a specialized center (company) that can provide tailored blanks to automakers; the United States and Japan also Both have established similar companies. At present, tailor-made blanks produced in Western Europe account for 70% of the world's total output, 20% produced in the United States, and 10% produced in Japan.


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